Lesson 7



PRESENT TENSE

The verb tenses are one of the more complicated parts of Macedonian grammar. The verb has three elementary tenses: present, past, and future, and a large variety of verb tenses including the witnessed and nonwitnessed forms. Here we will present the Present Simple Tense, the Future Simple Tense, and three Past Tenses.

Verbs in Macedonian are divided into three groups according to their ending in 3rd person singular. Thus, there are a-verbs, е-verbs, and и-verbs.

Present tense expresses an action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth. The forms for the present tense are formed by adding -м/-ш/-ме/-те/-ат to the verb form in 3rd person singular (verb form in 3rd person singular + -м/-ш/-ме/-те/-ат).

Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
гледам
I watch,
I'm watching
гледаш
you watch,
you're watching
гледа
he/she watches,
he/she is watching
гледаме
we watch,
we're watching
гледате
you watch,
you're watching
гледаат
they watch,
they're watching
пеам
I sing,
I'm singing
пееш
you sing,
you're singing
пее
he/she sings,
he/she is singing
пееме
we sing,
we're singing
пеете
you sing,
you're singing
пеат
they sing,
they're singing
носам
I wear,
I'm wearing
носиш
you wear,
you're wearing
носи
he/she wears,
he/she is wearing
носиме
we wear,
we're wearing
носите
you wear,
you're wearing
носат
they wear,
they're wearing

The negative paradigm is formed by using the negative particle не (no, not) followed by the forms for the present tense: не + present tense. Samples: носиш (you wear), не носиш (you don't wear).



FUTURE TENSE

Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. The forms for the future tense are formed by using of the particle ќе (shall/will) followed by the forms for the present tense (ќе + present tense).

Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
ќе гледам
I shall watch
ќе гледаш
you will watch
ќе гледа
he/she will watch
ќе гледаме
we shall watch
ќе гледате
you will watch
ќе гледаат
they will watch
ќе пеам
I shall sing
ќе пееш
you will sing
ќе пее
he/she will sing
ќе пееме
we shall sing
ќе пеете
you will sing
ќе пеат
they will sing
ќе носам
I shall wear
ќе носиш
you will wear
ќе носи
he/she will wear
ќе носиме
we shall wear
ќе носите
you will wear
ќе носат
they will wear

The negative paradigm is formed by using the construction нема да (literal meaning: "hasn't to") followed by the forms for the present tense: нема да + present tense. Samples: ќе носиш (you will wear), нема да носиш (you will not wear).



PAST TENSE

Past tense expresses an action or situation that happened in the past. There are several simple and complex past tenses in Macedonian. Here we will present the Imperfect, the Aorist, and the Perfect.

I M P E R F E C T - Минато определено несвршено време
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
гледав
I was watching
гледаше
you were watching
гледаше
he/she was watching
гледавме
we were watching
гледавте
you were watching
гледаа
they were watching
пеев
I was singing
пееше
you were singing
пееше
he/she was singing
пеевме
we were singing
пеевте
you were singing
пееја
they were singing
носев
I was wearing
носеше
you were wearing
носеше
he/she was wearing
носевме
we were wearing
носевте
you were wearing
носеа
they were wearing
A O R I S T - Минато определено свршено време
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
видов
I saw
виде
you saw
виде
he/she saw
видовме
we saw
видовте
you saw
видоа
they saw
испеав
I sung
испеа
you sung
испеа
he/she sung
испеавме
we sung
испеавте
you sung
испеаја
they sung
износив
I wore
износи
you wore
износи
he/she wore
износивме
we wore
износивте
you wore
износија
they wore
P E R F E C T - Минато неопрделено време
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person

сум гледал (masc.)
сум гледала (fem.)
сум гледалo (neut.)
I have/had watched;
I have/had been watching

си гледал (masc.)
си гледала (fem.)
си гледалo (neut.)
you have/had watched;
you have/had been watching
гледал (masc.)
гледала (fem.)
гледалo (neut.)
he/she/it has/had watched;
he/she/it has/had been watching
сме гледале
we have/had watched;
we have/had been watching
сте гледале
you have/had watched;
you have/had been watching
гледале
they have/had watched,
they have/had been watching
or, as a parallel form are used the има (have) constructions:
имам гледано имаш гледано има гледано имаме гледано имате гледано имаат гледано

The past tenses negative paradigm is formed by using the negative particle не (no, not) followed by the verb forms for the past tenses: не + past tense. Samples: носеше (you wore), не носеше (you didn't wear); сум гледал (I have watched), не сум гледал (I haven't watched). The negative paradigm of има (have) constructions is formed replacing of има (have) with нема (haven't). Samples: имам гледано (I have watched), немам гледано (I haven't watched).

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